aight, im jost gonna give you some shit.
This applies to humans only (as in the mobtype, species is irrelevant. monky and xeno need not apply)
there are a few procs damage runs through. Armor is largely ranked based on how low it goes
first proc: Apply Damage. Most attacks and damage are handled here. This is where Species armor is handled, as well as damage mods. this will skip to Bodypart Recieve Damage if it targets a zone
next proc: adjust[type]loss: no armor is handled here
next proc: apply overall damage. this applies damage somewhat equally over all bodyparts via bodypart recieve damage. due to how it works, this does NOT mean bodypart recieve damage works six times here. if you have only one bodypart with resistance, it’s not going to do much. you must be FULLY augged for bodypart resistance to matter here or for adjust[type]loss
final proc:Bodypart Recieve Damage. This is where bodyparts actually take damage, and is where bodypart reduction is held
Actual armor types:
normal armor takes place higher on the scale than species armor. It is not applied universally, and many things bypass it. It is limited by esoteric types (based on sources of damage) rather than damage types. This is what armor penetration applies to, and is the most common armor type, gained by clothing, nanites, etc. it is handled as a percentage reduction
species armor is UNIVERSAL, applying to all damage that goes through apply_damage. It is gained through xenobio, viro, being a golem, and sometimes the DNA vault, though it stacks poorly, due to how all the sources work. Species armor is unique in that, instead of being applied after armor, it is added to armor in the final calculation, meaning that it can block 100% of the damage, if armor applied
DAMAGE MODS: damage mods are a multiplier to damage, very self explanatory and easy to understand. they apply to a single damage type. they are mostly tied to species, though some things can change them
LIMB DR: limb damage reduction is weird. due to its place on the damage food-chain, it applies to ALL damage of its type (brute or burn). these only come from two sources at the moment: normal augments (5 brute, 4 burn) or upgraded viro augs (3 brute, 2 burn). This is, notably, insanely good against shotguns.